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Dawei Liu

Character introduction
Dr. Dawei Liu received his DDS (1990), MS (1994) from China Medical University, PhD (1997) from Peking University in China and MSc. Ortho and Certificate in orthodontics (2007) from Marquette University in the US. In 1999, he accepted invitation from Dr. Birte Melsen and worked as an Assistant Professor at the Department of Orthodontics, Arhus University, Denmark. Moving to the US in 2002, Dr. Liu continued his academic career at the Departments of Orthodontics at Indiana University (2002-2005) and Marquette University (2005-now) where he is the orthodontic program director and research director. Dr. Liu was promoted to Associate Professor with tenure in 2012. Besides teaching and clinical practice, Dr. Liu has been actively involved in research focusing on mechanotransduction in bone and mineralized tissues. His research has been supported by the Association of American Orthodontics Foundation (AAOF), the European Orthodontic Society (EOS), and funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) on the project entitled “Application of mechanical vibration to enhance orthodontic tooth movement." As a grant reviewer, Dr. Liu serves at the Center for Scientific Review, National Institute of Health (NIH). Dr. Liu is an ABO certified orthodontist and an active member of the Angle Society, AAO, ABO, EOS, Tweed Foundation, the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), and the Orthopedic Research Society (ORS). Dr. Liu is a member of the editorial board of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO) and reviewer for several other basic science and clinical journals.
Abstract
Topic: Revisiting the Concept of Enhancing Orthodontic Treatment
Two big challenges in clinical orthodontics are the long treatment time and relapse during retention after active orthodontic treatment. Long treatment often leads to bad consequences such as iatrogenic root resorption and white spot lesion, while relapse seriously compromises the quality of orthodontic care. Therefore, identify the etiologic factors and possible means to solve these problems can significantly enhance orthodontic treatment quality. Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is an aseptic inflammation-mediated bio-mechanical phenomenon leading to modeling and remodeling of periodontium (alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum), while retention is considered as a reverse process of OTM. To shorten treatment time (move teeth faster) and enhance retention, the endeavors in recent years have been put on two aspects – 1) optimizing the mechanic systems to move teeth/bone and 2) targeting on the biological basis of OTM and retention at tissue and cellular/molecular levels. The 1st aspect leads to the development of various low friction and self-ligation bracket systems, optimized orthodontic wires and temporary anchorage device (TAD) et al; while the 2nd aspect leads to the development of various therapeutic supplements such as the experimental injection of biomolecules e.g. OPG and RANKL proteins and gene constructs to influence OTM and retention. In recent years a surgical procedure - periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO) has been applied to help move teeth faster by increasing the regional turnover rate of bone (so called regional acceleratory phenomenon - RAP), followed by several less invasive alternatives such as piezocision and decortication. Unfortunately, none of these means has been efficaciously translated to clinical applications mainly due to their invasiveness and surgical complications. As non-invasive methods, low energy level of laser or LED and mechanical vibration have been proposed and applied to help move teeth faster, however with no or contradictory scientific evidence. In this presentation, all the currently available therapeutic methods as well as the newest scientific findings on enhancing OTM and retention will be reviewed, with regard to their mechanistic foundations, pros and cons, clinical applicability, effectiveness and efficacies. 
Character introduction
Dr. Dawei Liu received his DDS (1990), MS (1994) from China Medical University, PhD (1997) from Peking University in China and MSc. Ortho and Certificate in orthodontics (2007) from Marquette University in the US. In 1999, he accepted invitation from Dr. Birte Melsen and worked as an Assistant Professor at the Department of Orthodontics, Arhus University, Denmark. Moving to the US in 2002, Dr. Liu continued his academic career at the Departments of Orthodontics at Indiana University (2002-2005) and Marquette University (2005-now) where he is the orthodontic program director and research director. Dr. Liu was promoted to Associate Professor with tenure in 2012. Besides teaching and clinical practice, Dr. Liu has been actively involved in research focusing on mechanotransduction in bone and mineralized tissues. His research has been supported by the Association of American Orthodontics Foundation (AAOF), the European Orthodontic Society (EOS), and funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) on the project entitled “Application of mechanical vibration to enhance orthodontic tooth movement." As a grant reviewer, Dr. Liu serves at the Center for Scientific Review, National Institute of Health (NIH). Dr. Liu is an ABO certified orthodontist and an active member of the Angle Society, AAO, ABO, EOS, Tweed Foundation, the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), and the Orthopedic Research Society (ORS). Dr. Liu is a member of the editorial board of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO) and reviewer for several other basic science and clinical journals.
Abstract
Topic: Revisiting the Concept of Enhancing Orthodontic Treatment
Two big challenges in clinical orthodontics are the long treatment time and relapse during retention after active orthodontic treatment. Long treatment often leads to bad consequences such as iatrogenic root resorption and white spot lesion, while relapse seriously compromises the quality of orthodontic care. Therefore, identify the etiologic factors and possible means to solve these problems can significantly enhance orthodontic treatment quality. Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is an aseptic inflammation-mediated bio-mechanical phenomenon leading to modeling and remodeling of periodontium (alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum), while retention is considered as a reverse process of OTM. To shorten treatment time (move teeth faster) and enhance retention, the endeavors in recent years have been put on two aspects – 1) optimizing the mechanic systems to move teeth/bone and 2) targeting on the biological basis of OTM and retention at tissue and cellular/molecular levels. The 1st aspect leads to the development of various low friction and self-ligation bracket systems, optimized orthodontic wires and temporary anchorage device (TAD) et al; while the 2nd aspect leads to the development of various therapeutic supplements such as the experimental injection of biomolecules e.g. OPG and RANKL proteins and gene constructs to influence OTM and retention. In recent years a surgical procedure - periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO) has been applied to help move teeth faster by increasing the regional turnover rate of bone (so called regional acceleratory phenomenon - RAP), followed by several less invasive alternatives such as piezocision and decortication. Unfortunately, none of these means has been efficaciously translated to clinical applications mainly due to their invasiveness and surgical complications. As non-invasive methods, low energy level of laser or LED and mechanical vibration have been proposed and applied to help move teeth faster, however with no or contradictory scientific evidence. In this presentation, all the currently available therapeutic methods as well as the newest scientific findings on enhancing OTM and retention will be reviewed, with regard to their mechanistic foundations, pros and cons, clinical applicability, effectiveness and efficacies. 
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